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Geoff Wan's Chem12 notes

These are basically notes that are copied right out of my notebook. Their sole purpose is for review. If you have any questions, E-mail me!! I'll be glad to answer any that you have.



Chemistry 12

if you wanna go to my physics notes, click here

Table of contents for my chem notes

Chapter 18: Reaction Rate
Chapter 19: Reaction Equilibrium
Chapter 16/19: Solubility
Chapter 20: Acids and Bases
Chapter 20: Acids and Bases pt 2

Chapter 18: Reaction Dynamics


What happens during a chemical reaction?

- chemical reactions occure only when collisions have sufficient energy to cause a rearrangement of atoms
- high-energy molecular collisions cause "molecular damage" called a chemical reaction
- threshold energy is the minimum amount of energy required to cause the molecular rearrangement

18-1 Nature of Reactants

-Rate of Reaction is the amount of reactant consumed or product formed per unit of time. Since most reacions occur in solution, one can describe reaction rate in terms of the change in concentration of a reactant over a given period of time. Here are the indications of a reaction:

18-2 Collision Theory and Concentration

18-3 Effect of Surface Area

18-4 Effect of Temperature


18-5 Activation Energy

18-6 Catalysts

18-8 Reaction Mechanism

  • Reaction Mechanism is the sequence of steps by which a complex molecular reaction
  • each step is referred to as an elementary process
  • 2 particles collide to form an intermediary "Product"
  • the slowest step is called the Rate-Determining step


    Chapter 19: Reaction Equilbrium

    19-1 Reversibility of Reaction

    19-2 Dynamics of Equilibrium



    Notes on Equilibrium

    19-3 Recognizing Equilibrium States

    Here are the following criteria that must be met in order for equilibrium to be established

    19-4 Factors Controlling Equilibrium

    1. Enthalpy - heat content
    2. Entropy - degree of randomness

    Factors Affecting Equilibrium

    Equilibrium can be shifted forward or backward by a variety of changes to its conditions.

    Le Chatelier's Principle

    "...When a stress is applied to a system at eqiulibrium, the system will respond by reducing that stress..."

    Equilibrium Constant Expression

    Keq = [C]^a[D]^b / [A]^x[B]^y

    Equilibrium Solution Rules

    Interpreting Keq Values

    HALP! How the hell do I calculate equilibrium concentrations 'n shtuff??

    The only advice I can give you is: USE A TABLE THAT LISTS:

    Chapter 16 / 19: Solubility

    Solubility

    What the hell is Solubility Equilibrium?

    What the hell is Miscibility?

    The Solubility Table

    Anion (-)Cation (+) Status of Compound
    ANY anion
    ANY anion
    Nitrate (NO3-)
    Alkali Metal (Li, Na, K, Rb, Ce)
    Ammonium (NH4)
    ANY Cation
    Soluble
    Soluble
    Soluble
    Acetate (C2H3O2
    or CH3COO)
    ANY cation
    except Ag+
    Soluble
    Chloride, Bromide,
    or iodide (Cl-, Br-, I-)
    Ag+, Pb+, Hg2+, or Cu+
    ANY Other Cation
    Not Soluble
    Soluble
    Sulphate (SO4 2-) Ag+, Sr2+, Ba2+, Ra2+, Ag+, or Pb2+
    ANY other Cation (incl Mg2+)
    Not Soluble
    Soluble
    Sulphide (S 2-) Alkali ions and NH4
    Alkaline Earth Metals
    ALL other cations
    Soluble
    Slightly soluble
    Not soluble
    Hydroxide (OH-) Alkali ions and NH4
    Sr2+, Ba2+, or Ra2+
    (last 3 alkaline earth)
    ANY other cation
    Soluble
    Slightly Soluble

    Not Soluble
    Phosphate, Carbonate,
    or Sulphite
    (PO4 3-, CO3 2-, SO3 2-)
    Alkali ions and NH4
    ANY other cation
    Soluble
    Not Soluble
    So basically

    Solubility Product

    Common Ion Effect

    The solubility of a compound is decreased if one of its ions is initialyl present in the solvent.
    1.) (In the water)


    2.) (In NaCl)

    Well lookie here. AgCl dissolves better in water... Since I'm sure whoever is reading this is proficient in algebra, you can pretty much solve ANY Ksp question with what I've given you. If you're still having trouble,
    email me.


    Chapter 20: Acids and Bases

    Characteristics of Acids and Bases

    Both conduct electricity
    Acid
    • tastes sour
    • causes dyes to change colour (turns litmus pink)
    • liberates Hydrogen when it reacts with certain metals
    • loses its properties when it reacts with a base
    Base
    • tastes bitter causes certain dyes to change colour (turns litmus blue)
    • feels slippery
    • loses its properties when it reacts with an acid

    The Nature of Acids and Bases

    Bronsted-Lowry model: An acid is a proton (H^+) donor and a base is a proton acceptor (not necessarily OH^-)

    So, in the general scheme of things...
    HA(aq)
    acid
    + H20(l)
    Base
    <==> H30^+(aq)
    conjugate acid
    + A^-(aq)
    conjugate base



    What the hell is the diff between concentration and strength?!

    Concentration describes the number of moles of acid or base present in 1 litre of solution
    Strength on the other hand describes how readily or easily a substance will dissociate into ions or hydrolyze with water to form H3O^+ and OH^- ions (applies mainly to acids)

    So, if we apply our knowledge...

    The Equilibrium Constant for Water


    Kw =
    [H3O^+][OH^-]
    ----------------
    [H2O]

    ====>
    and since [H2O] is omitted
    from all these types of
    calculations...

    Kw = [H3O^+][OH^-]


    The (horrifying) effects of temperature on Kw


    Relative Acidity and the pH Scale


    Relative Acid Strength


    Molecular Bases


    Indicators


    Combining Acids

    Best of luck on tomorrow (Feb 5)'s test!

    Acids and Bases Part 2

    Indicators (cont'd)

    Hydrolysis of Salts



    Good luck on the upcoming test (march 13, 97)



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    Okay, enough of the chemistry! Let's see some Physics!